What makes you sweat?There is a gorgeous photo in the August 27 issue of the New Yorker of two graceful ballerinas posed evocatively in a mysterious setting of stage and body of water and gray sky (a painted scrim, yet a compelling visual backdrop in the photo). The photo is an advertisement for the New York City Ballet that opens its new season on September 18. The ad proudly proclaims “#SWEATBEAUTY" as if we need to be reminded that Ballet may be gorgeous, thrilling, dangerous, and ethereal, but it is also hard sweaty work to train one’s body to do the hard work while appearing effortlessly beautiful.Thinking about the physicality of Ballet made me think about Sports. In Sports, athletes train hard to perform at their peak abilities with the goal of winning. #SWEATWIN you might say. Some of my young readers may not remember the great hockey player, Wayne Gretzky, who was described as Balletic as well as Athletic. Watching him play was amazing as it looked like he was always in position to shoot thepuck and score. He talked about visualizing where the puck would be, not looking at where the puck was. Anticipating correctly what his teammates and opponents would do is what set the Great Gretzky above his peers. He made it look easy, but we knew that it was sweaty.Ballerinas sweat in the service of Beauty. Athletes sweat in the service of the score. But there is another difference. Ballerinas sweat in the service of a choreographer’s vision of Beauty. Although many dancers become choreographers, they are trained to learn the steps that others have assembled, to internalize the story and emotion of the choreography, to execute those moves perfectly, and through this movement and music, to communicate the story line to the audience/the fans.Athletes from team sports must learn the “plays” developed by the coaches. Their opponents learn their own plays, including how to stop the other team’s plays. Where choreographers can plan an entire Ballet performance, team sports athletes must be able to change the play to fit the situation, and not be so predictable that their opponents can anticipate what comes next. The athletes who seem to be themost successful are able to anticipate what will happen next. These top performing athletes are the smartest and most strategic players. NE Patriots quarterback Tom Brady may have achieved his longevity and his Super Bowl rings with his brain, perhaps more than with his quick-release throws. Both Ballerinas and Athletes must have a good memory and great timing.How does this hard work, both physical and mental, apply to what we do as architects and interior designers? We act as both choreographer and coach, creating the plans for the spaces that fit the needs and wants and budgets and schedules of our clients. The builders and artisans are the “athletes” who execute our “plays.” Most of our projects are renovations, so we must also be strategic and try to anticipate what can go wrong, what the buildings may be hiding that we cannot see (which is pretty much impossible some of the time), what material has just sky-rocketed in price or is unavailable in our required timeframe. We must be willing and able to alter the original choreography, whencircumstances prevent the project from going according to plan.If you have a project, whether for improving your office, your store, your restaurant, your home, your church, mosque or synagogue, your college/university or daycare center, please call us. Let us sweat a little for you!
Is it Time for a new Post-Modernism? RIP Robert Venturi
Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown were Philadelphia based architects with a sense of humor, an appreciation for buildings with soul, and a willingness to credit and learn from the contributions of others, past and present. Robert Venturi was one of my heroes. Not one obituary that I have read mentioned my favorite Venturi story: When Robert Venturi was awarded the Pritzker Prize, he said that he would only accept the award if it included Denise Scott Brown, his wife and long-time collaborator and co-author. When the Pritzker committee declined to extend the award to include Scott Brown, Venturi subversively never said “I”, only “WE” in his acceptance speech. In the age of “I did it all myself” starchitects, who famously ignore the contributions of others, especially contributions from women, Venturi’s appreciation of his wife’s partnership was heroic. Please read this collection of obituaries or this Boston Globe obit to discover some other great stories and learn more about the actual projects done by their firm. I was just in Miami, where big boxy white boxes are the standard new house design. When I talked with local real estate professionals, friends and fellow architects, I heard the same complaint over and over: these white boxes have no soul. Venturi describes the work of the modernists of the 1960’s as having no complexity, and as he drew from the past, he became the “father” of Post-modernism (a title that he hated). Venturi’s sense of humor meant that many architects did not take him seriously, and perhaps some of his projects lacked gravitas, but for me he opened a world of looking at neighborhoods in the context of how buildings can speak to each other no matter their era or style, and how it’s okay to appreciate the glitzy strip of Las Vegas. I went to architecture school in the middle of the 1970’s at the RISD. The architecture school was filled with professors who came from varied architectural points of view. There was a prof who loved Louis Kahn, another who loved Corbu, a follower of Alvar Aalto, another who was passionate about passive solar and underground houses, a Miesian/Meier afficionado, an artist architect from the British architecture studio Archigram who loved Venturi and other post-modernists, while creating drawings and paintings that were painstakingly renaissance in their detail, and who also turned us on to Aldo Rossi and Super Studio from Italy. There were formal neo-classicists and don’t forget the conceptualists who were more about ideas than about buildings. RISD was a great place that was open to ideas from everywhere, and where rules could be broken. As a person who has reviewed portfolios from young architecture graduates from around the world, I can tell you that some schools must have only one point of view these days, or maybe the starchitects sprinkle fairy dust over the students, because I see theGehry look-alikes, the Zaha Hadid wannabes, the Morphosis knock-offs, and the white and glass boxes, not quite Mies or Meier caliber, each consistently from a particular architecture school. When is the next architecture revolution coming? The tyranny of Modern in the 21st may be turning a new crop of rebellious students into Venturi influenced retro designers, open to the whole conversation of architecture. I hope that learning more about Robert Venturi will encourage them to read “Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture,” written in 1966 and relevant today. Venturi and Scott Brown encouraged us to take ourselves less seriously, to love the past, to not be afraidto break rules, to draw, to write, to teach. Rest in Peace, Robert Venturi, your spirit lives on in those of us inspired by you. My sincere condolences to Denise Scott Brown. What a partnership!
Want a challenge? Play Golf!
I play golf in the Summer in New England and occasionally in the Winter in Miami. I’ve been playing on and off for almost twenty years, but I’ve gotten serious about improving my game over the past five years or so. No one can believe that I like golf. Maybe it’s because people assume that a creative soul like mine wouldn’t like the preppy world of a stereotypical golf country club. Side-bar: If you want to learn about what a fictional country club life is like, watch Amazon’s “Red Oaks.” It tells the story of the creative misfit daughter of the President of the country club making friends with the wannabe filmmaker/tennis assistant pro at the club along with other stories of family dynamics, love, and income inequality of the members versus the workers. It’s hysterical! We don’t belong to a club, instead preferring to play a variety of public courses. We’ve been paired with all types of people, some more enjoyable to play with than others. We’ve discovered that golfers are teachers, property managers, sub-contractors, musicians, chefs, business owners (their country club was closed for repairs), scientists, bankers, architects and retirees. It may be the best part of playing on public courses. Golf is a sport that is mentally and physically challenging. I think that some folks don’t think it’s a proper sport because it’s not aerobic (is baseball?). Of course, now that there are folks who watch professional video gamers, perhaps aerobic exercise is not the only criteria for a sport. One thing that most sports require is practice. I am a fair-weather golfer. I’m not so obsessed that I will play in 100-degree or 40-degree weather, or in rainy or extremely windy conditions. One summer the weather was so gorgeous that we got to play every weekend day and I actually improved my scores! But golf is not just about learning to strike the ball, which is so much harder than it looks on TV. Golf is mentally challenging!!! Once I broke 100, I raised my expectations for myself. Confidence is important in any sport or work of any kind, I guess, but golf is unlikely to allow you to sustain that confidence. One time I broke 90, then I scored a 104 the next time out. Last week I got one of my very rare birdies on one hole, then immediately scored a double bogey on the next hole. Explain, please. Then explain why I love to play it! Architecture and Interior design are also challenging. Fortunately, our successes build on each other. No project is perfect, but the issues tend to get smaller as our experience increases. Experience also helps us communicate to our clients about the probable outcomes for each decision. We have five practice areas: work, play, age, live and learn. Over time, our practice areas have become specialties. Experience really matters for design and construction projects. I love what I do. I love to see great outcomes for our clients who are willing to let us guide (caddy?) them through the “course” of a project. Interested in teeing up your next project? Looking for more birdies than bogeys? Please call and learn more about how we can help.
What is a Motif?
Motifs are a repeated element or theme in music, literature and in design. In design, a motif can be inspired by a company’s logo, a homeowner’s favorite piece of art or music, a client’s passion/mission, a historic element in an existing building, the shape of a letter, or even nature itself, such as a nautilus shell, rose bloom, or maple tree leaf. Use the motif only once and it is a focal point, but use it often and it can tie a building together visually, communicate a message or add a little fun. Use it too often and it can make a space look like you are selling luxury goods (think the Gucci logo). Even luxury brands are adjusting their logos to differentiate from the copy cats. Gucci’s advertisement on the back cover of the July 2018 edition of Boston Magazine features a bedazzled shoe with a giant “G” on the toe. But I digress.Creating and selecting a motif really helps us as designers to understand better who a client is and what brings them joy. Some of the applications of the motif can be quite subtle and can be fun for the client who after moving in can search for the motifs and discover where we have hidden them. Like my previous post about patterns, the use of a motif can personalize and enliven a space that might otherwise be more generic. (If you read my post about “meh” you might know that sometimes generic is good!) In music, John Williams understood the power of the motif or theme. By having the motif reoccur, in variations of the original, we the audience can get a clue about what is about to happen. Think of his brilliant “Jaws” motif or the theme of “Raiders of the Lost Ark.” The man could churn out an identifiable, unique musical theme for each movie. Inspiring and intimidating. Before John Williams, there is another musical motif that comes to mind that I bet you can hear in your mind’s ear when you read this: “James Bond” by Monty Norman. Mr. Norman has collected royalties since 1962. Between the years 1976 and 1999, he earned 485,000 British Pounds. A good motif pays well! Don’t let the brilliance of some composers and artists intimidate you. In design, a motif can be simple, like a quatrefoil, a musical note, or a triangle, and still serve the purpose and grand design goals of the project. Start with something simple, then embellish, simplify, enlarge, or reduce it and you may find the secret ingredient for taking your space to the next level. When you are ready to discuss a motif that is appropriate for your project, give us call! It’s never too late to add a little fun and a little meaning into your life.
Do you see Patterns?
Patterns are everywhere, in nature, in man-made things and in behaviors. Sometimes we use patterns as models for things, as in dressmaking or woodworking. Sometimes we get trapped into perhaps bad patterns of behavior, such eating dessert after every meal. Sometimes we add patterns as a decorative tool in our designer tool belt. From a design perspective, patterns are back in after a decade of solid colors. I’ve even seen the overabundance of patterns, English decorator style, in a few design magazines that previously featured only stark Modern minimalism with pops of bright color. Shocking!! I have also noticed that even the modernists are using patterns to add life to their white spaces. Biophilic design, incorporating nature into architecture, has been pretty popular for at least the past five years. Twenty years ago, we studied how Mother Nature made her patterns as inspiration for our own design work. We discovered that curves in Nature are almost always made up of straight lines. Even those curvy leaves, on closer examination, are made of segments. We thought this was exciting in the late 1990’s. If you look at our portfolio, you’ll see many examples of the segmented curve. This is an example of a pattern that is integral to the design, rather than a decorative add-on. Decorative patterns are also important. We know that life, whether in the office, in a restaurant, in a home, or in a library, is hard on most interior finishes. Adding pattern to carpets (case in point antique oriental rugs that are still beautiful after 100 years of use) or fabrics will do a good job of hiding the wear and tear and dirt of life. Although you may think that designers want our clients to redo their spaces every year, for us the longevity of a space is important not only as an economic benchmark, but also as part of creating a more sustainable planet. I remember buying my first sewing machine when I was 12 or so. My Dad said that I could select anything within a certain price limit. Together, we narrowed down the choices to two. One was a Singer, with every gadget and fancy stitch you can imagine. The other was a Husqvarna, white, simple, with only the basic straight and zig-zag stitches. They were the same price. I chose the simple and sturdy and elegant one over the fancy and complicated machine. I sewed on that machine for 40 years, with maybe one or two maintenance services. I used patterns when I was young, but then learned how to make my own patterns when I was at RISD. These skills were put to the test as I made costumes (pirate captain, cowboy, fire fighter) for my son. That wonderful sewing machine finally died a decade ago. Two years ago, I finally decided to replace it. My new (used) machine is a Pfaff from Germany. It is good looking and it has the fancy stitches. It took me almost a year to get up the nerve to use it! Do you use patterns in your work or hobby? Do you have patterns of behavior that you would like to change? Do you appreciate patterns as decorative elements? We would love to hear your thoughts. If you think it is time for a little pattern in your home or workplace, give us a call!
How to improve productivity without giving up the open office
Many of you will remember the old McKinsey study on improving productivity in a factory. Every time the lighting was brightened, the productivity went up. After a while, productivity stabilized, so the researchers tried reducing light levels. Productivity climbed again. Researchers’ conclusion: changing the work environment can improve productivity. When enclosed offices gave way to open offices, productivity went up. After making “cubes” smaller, productivity went up. After a while, the small cube open environment got reinterpreted as even more open, more rustic, and at first this felt fresh. Now almost every article in the business press [see this interesting example from NBC News] has been about the disaster of the open office. My theory is that employees like choice and change, but employers like cutting RE expenses and looking trendy. The unsuccessful open offices are noisy (no acoustic ceilings) or strangely quiet (with earbuds in every person...see this article from Harvard Business School), dark (bad lighting), and crowded. These open offices feel more like a monastery for monks copying manuscripts than like a creative collaborative workplace. There are not enough private spaces for either 2 people to work together or for 1 person to work alone for intense concentration. These private spaces cost money to construct and for the increased space requirement, resulting in increased rent. Corporate Real Estate Departments who brag that their cost of space/person is low may find that attracting new workers has troughed, and that productivity may have tanked. Since the McKinsey study proved that change to the work environment can increase productivity, corporate America may want to reorganize the open office to maximize options. One of our recent projects in Boston for a large local non-profit implemented the concept of workplace choice. Without increasing the overall square footage of the space, the workplace was transformed (see image above). The new floors have a feeling of openness but there are dozens of private booths that are available for standup work, reading in a lounge chair or for 2-person meetings. We provided 1 private booth for every 4-5 people. At first, no one realized that the booths were available for them to actually use as needed, and almost every booth was vacant. Within a month more than half were occupied at any given time. When asked whether they liked working in the more open environment, it was interesting to hear their responses. They actually liked working at their smaller 120° cubes, and they felt less of a need for more privacy because privacy was readily available. I found it curious that the secluded quiet rooms (bigger than booths) were not in high demand. I think that the acoustic “white noise” mitigation makes the whole space quiet enough to concentrate and quiet enough to speak on the phone or to others without shouting and without disturbing others. Acoustics may be the central reason that some open plan offices are considered failures. For more information about the acousticians who worked on our successful open plan workplace, visit the website of Acentech. If you want to transform your workplace from noisy and dark into a quiet, bright, happy and productive revitalized space, please call us. Increasing productivity, decreasing absenteeism and improving employee engagement is a complicated challenge. We would love to help!
Textiles To Dye For
Color may be my favorite tool in my design toolbox. I guess it’s kind of obvious when you look at our work. I realize, a little late, that we should photograph the spaces in which the largest change is color so that you can see more directly the positive impact that color can have. Our specialty for the use of color is in architecture and interiors, but of course there is another specialty that is impacted by color, and that is textiles – fashion and furnishings. Did you know that current techniques dyeing textiles causes pollution? Even if your wardrobe and your sofas, chairs, towels and sheets are all in shades of gray, your clothes, furnishings and bedding are dyed. Dyeing textiles requires huge quantities of water, energy and chemicals. In the primary textile locations: China, India, and Bangladesh, rivers have been reported to have unnatural hues from the chemicals released in the wastewater. Synthetic dyes are used to color both polyester and cotton, but cotton is the more water and heat intensive process. The surface of cotton is negatively charged and doesn’t react easily with the negatively charged dye compounds. To make dyed cottons color fast – the dyed fabric or yarn is washed multiple times in hot water, creating large amounts of wastewater. 200 L of water is used to produce 1 kg. of fabric. Apparel manufacturers are making sustainability pledges, and the $3 trillion textile industry is beginning to respond with innovative techniques. In India, under government pressure, dye factories are now recycling 90% of their water. One of the companies innovating is Intech, located in Hong Kong. Their specialty is digital printing with pigments instead of dye, reducing water and energy usage. A review of the textile wastewater revealed that it contains high concentrations of dyes and chemicals, including chromium, arsenic, copper and zinc. Dyes and chemicals in the waterways also block sunlight, increasing biological oxygen demand (J. Chem. Eng. Process Technol. 2014, DOI: 10-4172/215-7048, 1000182). Another innovative dye technique is a process called “cationization” that improves the bond between cotton and the dyes. Color Zen, in North Carolina, is a start-up that has developed on pre-treatment for cotton that attaches a positively charged amino site on the cellulose charged fiber, that then naturally attracts the negatively charged dye. Color Zen treats the raw cotton fiber after the seeds are removed but before the cotton is spun into yarn. They think this pre-treatment process uses 90% less water, 75% less energy, 90% fewer auxiliary chemicals – and makes dyeing faster. It also cuts out half the dye compared with processes that call for salts in the dye bath. Please note: All of the technical information above comes from the fascinating article in Chemical and Engineering News, July 16, 2018, page 28-33, “Greener Textile Dyeing” by Melody Bomgardner. Ms. Bomgardner’s article also has an interesting chart that outlines the differences in dye requirements for cotton, polyester, viscose (rayon), and wool. Perhaps not surprisingly, the least environmental impact from the dyeing process is wool, and perhaps surprisingly, the most environmental impact from the process of dyeing is cotton. Let’s hope that the innovative companies showcased in this c&en article will succeed in improving a process that we didn’t realize was causing so much harm.
Let’s Embrace Human-Centered Design Thinking
Richard Farson, PhD, psychologist and author of The Power of Design, perhaps overstates his case when he writes, “Design, the creation of form, has the power to transform culture, ignite education, foster community and even broker peace.” Wow! I think that the most powerful design fields are Architecture, Landscape Architecture, Interior Architecture, and Interior Design because people experience life (and space) in 3 dimensions. It’s hard to avoid feeling the results of any particular design, whether those feelings are intended or not intended by the designers. So if a space/design engenders a reaction, a feeling, then as designers, let’s make that feeling the intended one. We all have heard the term “unintended consequences” as it is used in reference to our behaviors. Let’s think about the consequences of our design decisions and strive to achieve the intended ones. If we want to “broker peace,” architecture may not be the first tool that we think of; but if we want to foster community, architecture really matters. Lofty goals can be achieved if we embrace them. Let’s consider the effects of our design choices on the people who will use the spaces we create. Jon Kolko wrote in the Harvard Business Review on the evolution of design thinking: “Design is empathetic, and thus implicitly drives a more thoughtful, human approach to business.” If designers can remember that they are working to enhance the lives of people, not just to have fancy photographs in design magazines, then the full power of design can be implemented for “good.” Maybe we can avoid the unintended consequences of our design actions and achieve our intentions – enhancing the human experience. Human-centered design thinking means thinking about people first. Asking questions about the needs of the people and the goals of the community is the first step of design thinking. Human-centered design thinking could make the world a better place for people who work, play, age, live and learn. If you have a project that could use better, human-centered thinking and project pre-planning, call us. Let’s embrace the power of design!
If you think purple is a mixed-up color today, you may be surprised to know that it has a mixed-up history as well, one as rich as its hue. In today’s world, colors and pigments are so readily available, through paints and computer graphics, that we often don’t realize that color has an extensive history, dating back to cave paintings which were made from grinding up available materials, such as dirt, stones, plants, and even insects, into different pigments. The color palette was extremely limited in that day – they definitely did not have access to purple! In fact, according to the book “The Secret Lives of Color” by Kassia St. Clair, purple was not accessible for a very long time, and even when it was (around the fifteenth century B.C.), it was so rare and difficult to make that only the powerful and wealthy were able to access it. The earliest evidence of purple dye comes from the Phoenicians in Tyre (today’s Lebanon). “Phoencia” literally means “purple country,” and it was named so because the hue “Tyrian Purple” gave the region fame and fortune through the trade of this dye. The dye was produced using a very timely, costly and pretty gross process involving two varieties of shellfish native to the Mediterranean, Thais haemastoma and Murex brandaris. Phoenicians would crack open the shells of these crustaceans and locate a specific gland called the hypobranchial gland, which when squeezed would produce a single drop of clear, garlic-smelling liquid. Within minutes, the sunlight would turn this liquid into a deep purple-red, the best hue being obtained from mixing the gland fluids of both types of shellfish and was dubbed “Tyrian Purple”. This fluid combination was then placed in large vats of stale urine (for the ammonia) and fermented for 10 days before cloth was even added. Afterward, although the cloth was a beautiful Tyrian purple, it allegedly kept its smell of rotting shellfish, garlic, and urine. That’s real commitment to the color purple! The poor shellfish though…since each one contained a single drop, it took approximately 250,000 to make one ounce of dye. Because of this labor-intensive process, Tyrian purple dye was incredibly expensive, and was therefore only affordable to royalty. Soon it became law that only royalty was allowed to wear it. Around 47 B.C when Julius Caesar was in power, he introduced a new toga in his favorite color, Tyrian purple, and declared that only he was allowed to wear the color. His rule was so severe that anyone caught wearing the color could face death. A bit farther east, Byzantine queens would give birth in royal birthing chambers completely decked in Tyrian purple, so that it would be the first color that new princes would see, and they would therefore be “born into the purple,” sealing their right to rule. Today, we realize that even though “violet” is the shortest spectral wavelength that humans can see, there are hundreds of variations of the color through advanced technology. Suddenly everyone has access to purple, so it has become just a color like any of the other thousands. Even Tyrian purple now has many different interpretations – we’ve rounded up some of our favorite Tyrian purple hues from Benjamin Moore, Sherwin Williams and PPG so that you too can feel like royalty in your home or office! Purple isn’t the only color with a rich history! Want to learn more about the history of other colors? Check out “The Secret Lives of Color” to learn more! Please call Leslie Saul & Associates if you want to add a little color into your life.
Purple – more than a mixed-up color
Every little kid knows that red + blue = purple. One of my granddaughters’ favorite books is “Mix it Up! by Herve Tullet. This interactive book is all about how paint colors mix to make other colors. If you have read my other blog posts, you might think that almost every post is about mixing it up. I think that life (and construction projects) is not a straight line, yet sometimes it is the detours and mix- ups that make life worth living (and projects more successful), but I digress. Let’s agree that purple is a mixed-up color. I was driving back to my office last week, when I heard the NPR article about how Iowa is a “purple” state, but that both the legislature and the governor’s office are all Republican for the first time in a long time. The democrat running for Governor could win and bring Iowa back to its “purple” status. I come from what used to be an extremely “red” state, Ohio, with the exception of Cleveland, that has always been “blue”. Now Cincinnati, my home town, has become “blue” as well. Ohio is now a “purple” state. Perhaps I’ve always been a little “purple”. My logo was designed 25 years ago. As you probably know, it is a purple square with an orange dot. The color of the square is purple, but it really is closer to navy blue than it is to proper purple. I suppose my “blue” roots must be showing. When I got married, I told the women in the wedding party that they could wear any style dress as long as it was in any shade of purple that pleased them. It was so much fun to see what people chose. My husband’s grandmother chose a pale mauve, almost pink, and my sister chose a deep eggplant color – and we had every color in between. We bought the men purple ties. The cake was decorated in purple pansies. It all worked so well together (and so do my husband and I: we are about to celebrate 40 years of purple wedded bliss)! In design, I often use purple as a neutral. Whether it is a pale grey with a purple cast (Benjamin Moore’s Misty Memories 2118-60), a medium purply-gray (Benjamin Moore’s Sea Life 2118-40), or a deep purple that is almost black (Benjamin Moore’s Toucan Black 2115-20), these “purples” are so much more interesting than their counterparts of grey or black, yet they still function well as neutral “colors” that work well with any accent color in a project’s palette. At one point, a long-term client said that they always searched for the “purple” on each project. I confess, I do love purple! You too may learn to love purple. Whether you identify as “purple”, “blue” or “red”, let us know if we can help you with your next design project, no matter your color persuasion! After all, don’t we all just want to get along?
Leslie Saul & Associates, Inc.
architecture and interiors
1972 Massachusetts Ave.
Cambridge, MA 02140